Measure and provide feedback for curvature, stress, reflectivity and growth rate to improve production processes and increase profitability with the kSA MOS.

kSA MOS for thin-film stress measurement animation

Understanding and controlling stress in thin-film and thermal annealing processes is critical for achieving the desired optical, electronic, and mechanical properties.  Many of today’s high performance devices rely on or must be designed with “built-in” stress within the individual layers for tailoring specific characteristics.  However, unwanted changes in thin-film stress can be introduced at any stage of the fabrication process and may lead to a reduction in device performance as well as delamination or cracking of deposited films.

Traditional ex situ stress/strain measurement methods such as XRD or surface profiling only measure the overall stress after the process is done, but completely miss the dynamic changes in thin-film stress occurring during the process.  Being able to measure the stress/strain in situ, during the process gives important insight into mechanisms and methods for controlling and targeting the overall stress induced into the sample during every step.

For more information see the Product Specification Sheet →

Six-Junction III-V Solar Cells With 47.1% Conversion Efficiency Under 143 Suns Concentration
John F. Geisz, Ryan M. France, Kevin L. Schulte, Myles A. Steiner, Andrew G. Norman, Harvey L. Guthrey, Matthew R. Young, Tao Song, and Thomas Moriarty

Nature Energy, Volume 5, April 2020, 326-335

Development of Residual Stress and Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropy During Growth of Polycrystalline co Film
Arun Singh Dev, Dileep Kumar, Pooja Gupta, Pramod Vishwakarma, Ajay Gupta

Materials Research Bulletin 121 (2020) 110616

The effect of kinetics on intrinsic stress generation and evolution in sputter-deposited films at conditions of high atomic mobility
A. Jamnig, N. Pliatsikas, K. Sarakinos, and G. Abadias

Journal of Applied Physics 127, 045302 (2020)

Interfacial Silicide Formation and Stress Evolution During Sputter Deposition of Ultrathin Pd Layers on a-Si
Bärbel Krause, Gregory Abadias, Clarisse Furgeaud, Anny Michel, Andrea Resta, Alessandro Coati, Yves Garreau, Alina Vlad, Dirk Hauschild, Tilo Baumbach

ACS Applied Materials Interfaces, 2019,

An In Situ System for Simultaneous Stress Measurement and Optical Observation of Silicon Thin Film Electrodes
Jian Chen, Le Yang, Yu Han, Yin-Hua Bao, Kai-Lun Zhang, Xiang Li, Jing Pang, Hao-Sen Chen, Wei-Li Song,Yu-Jie Wei, Dai-Ning Fang

Journal of Power Sources, Volume 444, 31 December 2019, 227227;

Real-Time Monitoring of Stress Development During Electrochemical Cycling of Electrode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries: Overview and Perspectives
Manoj K. Jangid and Amartya Mukhopadhyay

J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019,7, 23679-23726;

Development of Residual Stress and Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropy During Growth of Polycrystalline Co Filmx
Arun Singh Dev, Dileep Kumar, Pooja Gupta, Pramod Vishwakarma, Ajay Gupta

Materials Research Bulletin, Volume 121, January 2020, 110616;

On the Determination of Alloy Composition Using Optical Spectroscopy in MOVPE Grown InGaN Layers on Si(111)
Vikash K. Singh, Payal Taya, Dipankar Jana, RenuTyagi, S. Raghavan, T. K. Sharmac

Superlattices and Microstructures, Volume 134, October 2019, 106234;

Direct Observation of the Thickness-Induced Crystallization and Stress Build-Up During Sputter-Deposition of Nanoscale Silicide Films
Bärbel Krause, Gregory Abadias, Anny Michel, Peter Wochner, Shyjumon Ibrahimkutty, and Tilo Baumbach

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2016 8 (50), 34888-34895; https://doi.org10.1021/acsami.6b12413

Chemo-Mechanical Degradation in V2O5 Thin Film Cathodes of Li-ion Batteries During Electrochemical Cycling
Yuwei Zhang, Yuting Luo, Cole Fincher, Sarbajit Banerjee, Matt Pharr

Journal of Materials Chemistry A (Accepted 9th July 2019);

Atomic-Scale Diffusion Rates During Growth of Thin Metal films on Weakly-Interacting Substrates
A. Jamnig, D. G. Sangiovanni, G. Abadias & K. Sarakinos

Scientific Reports 9, Article number: 6640 (2019).

Tuning High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharge and Substrate Bias Conditions to Reduce the Intrinsic Stress of TiN Thin Films
Felipe Cemin, Gregory Abadias, Tiberiu Minea, Daniel Lundin

Thin Solid Films

Stress-charge coupling coefficient for thin-film polypyrrole actuators – Investigation of capacitive ion exchange in the oxidized state
Benedikt Roschning, Jörg Weissmüller

Electrochimica Acta (Volume 318, 20 September 2019, Pages 504-512).

In-Operando Imaging of Polysulfide Catholytes for Li–S Batteries and Implications for Kinetics and Mechanical Stability
Yuwei Zhang, Coleman Fincher, Scott McProuty, Matt Pharr

Journal of Power Sources (Volume 434, 15 September 2019).

Enhanced Properties of Tungsten Films by High-Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
A.M.Engwall, S.J.Shin, J.Bae, Y.M.Wang

Surface and Coatings Technology, Volum 363, 15 April 2019, Pages 191-197

GaN Heteroepitaxy on Strain-Engineered (111) Si/Si1−xGex
Anushka Bansal, Nathan C. Martin, Ke Wang, Joan M. Redwing

Journal of Elec Materi (2019) 48: 3355.

Long Range, Non-Destructive Characterization of GaN Substrates for Power Devices
J.C. Gallagher, T.J. Anderson, L.E. Luna, A.D. Koehler, J.K. Hite, N.A. Mahadik, K.D. Hobart, F.J. Kub

Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 506, 15 January 2019, Pages 178-184

The Influence of Alloying Interactions On Thin Film Growth Stresses
XuyangZhou, Gregory B.Thompson

Applied Surface Science, Volume 463, 1 January 2019, Pages 545-555;

Fabrication and Characterization of SU-8-Based Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer for Airborne Applications
Jose Joseph, Shiv Govind Singhm, Siva Rama Krishna Vanjari

J. of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS, 17(1), 015003 (2018);

Dislocation Bending and Stress Evolution in Mg-Doped GaN Films on Si Substrates
Rohith Soman, Nagaboopathy Mohan, Hareesh Chandrasekar, Navakanta Bhat, and Srinivasan Raghavan

Journal of Applied Physics 124, 245104 (2018)

Stresses in Thin Films: an Experimental Study
N. Sharma, M. Hooda, S. K. Sharma

Indian J Phys (2018)

Tailoring Structural and Energy-Related Properties of Thin Films Using HiPIMS
Felipe Cemin

Thesis – University Paris-Saclay, 2018

Mechanics of Electrodes in High Capactiy Lithium-Ion Batteries
Garrett Ransford Hardin 

Thesis - Master of Science, Texas A&M, August 2018

Qualification of Silicon Based Oxide and Nitride Films for Metal-Insulator-Metal Capacitors
N. Sharma, M. Hooda, and S. K. Sharma

Mater. Express, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2018 doi:10.1166/mex.2018.1436

In-situ measurements of stress evolution in composite sulfur cathodes
Yuwei Zhang, Yuting Luo, Coleman Fincher, Scott McProuty, Garrett Swenson, Sarbajit Banerjee, Matt Pharr

The Influence of Deposition Parameters on the Stress Evolution of Sputter Deposited Copper
Tyler Kaub, Zhaoxia Rao, Eric Chason, Gregory B. Thompson

Surface and Coatings Technology Volume 357, 15 January 2019, Pages 939-946

Fabrication of Micro-Nano-Mechanical Structures For Sensing Application
N Sharma, M Hooda, S K Sharma

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 13, Number 8 (2018) pp. 6388-6393

In Situ Monitoring of Stress Change in GeTe Thin Films During Thermal Annealing and Crystallization
B. Ben Yahia, M.S. Amara, M. Gallard, N. Burle, S. Escoubas, C. Guichet, M. Putero, C. Mocuta, M.-I. Richard, R. Chahine, C. Sabbione, M. Bernard, L. Fellouh, P. Noé, O. Thomas

The Influence of Alloying Interactions on Thin Film Growth Stresses
X. Zhou, G.B. Thompson

Applied Surface Science (2018), doi:

The Role of Surface Roughness on Dislocation Bending and Stress Evolution in Low Mobility AlGaN Films During Growth
Abheek Bardhan, Nagaboopathy Mohan, Hareesh Chandrasekar, Priyadarshini Ghosh, D.V.Sridhara Rao and Srinivasan Raghavan

Journal of Applied Physics 123, 165108 (2018);

In Situ Measurement of the Effect of Stress on the Chemical Diffusion Coefficient of Li in High-Energy-Density Electrodes
Rajasekhar Tripuraneni, Subhajit Rakshit, and Siva P. V. Nadimpalli

Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 165 (10) A2194-A2202 (2018)

Real-Time Stress Measurement in SiO2 Thin Films During Electrochemical Lithiation/Delithiation Cycling
Rakshit, S., Tripuraneni, R. & Nadimpalli

S.P.V. Exp Mech (2018) 58: 537;

Impact of Ge Alloying on the Early Growth Stages, Microstructure and Stress Evolution of Sputter-Deposited Cu-Ge Thin Films
C.Furgeaud, L.Simonot, A.Michel, C.Mastail, G.Abadias

Acta Materialia, Volume 159, 15 October 2018, Pages 286-295;

Evolution of In Situ Growth Stresses and Interfacial Structure in Phase Changing Cu/V Multilayered Thin Films
Qianying Guo, Gregory B.Thompson

Acta Materialia, Volume 148, 15 April 2018, Pages 63-71;

Stress in Thin Films and Coatings: Current Status, Challenges, and Prospects
Grégory Abadias, Eric Chason, Jozef Keckes, Marco Sebastiani, Gregory B. Thompson, Etienne Barthel, Gary L. Doll, Conal E. Murray, Chris H. Stoessel, and Ludvik Martinu

Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films 36, 020801 (2018); doi:10.1116/1.5011790

Composition, Microstructure, and Electrical Performance of Sputtered SnO Thin Films for p-Type Oxide Semiconductor
Seung Jun Lee, Younjin Jang, Han Joon Kim, Eun Suk Hwang, Seok Min Jeon, Jun Shik Kim, Taehwan Moon, Kyung-Tae Jang, Young-Chang Joo, Deok-Yong Cho, and Cheol Seong Hwang

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2018 10 (4), 3810-3821 ; DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b17906

Fracture Toughness of Mo2BC Thin Films: Intrinsic Toughness Versus System Toughening
R. Soler, S. Gleich, C. Kirchlechner, C. Scheu, J.M. Schneider, G. Dehm

Materials and Design 154 (2018) 20–27

Stress Generation and Evolution in Oxide Hheteroepitaxy
Aline Fluri, Daniele Pergolesi, Alexander Wokaun, and Thomas Lippert

Phys. Rev. B 97, Iss. 12 — 15 March 2018;

The Effect of Water Vapor on Nanosecond Laser Damage Resistance of Optical Coatings in Vacuum
Xiulan Ling, Shenghu Liu, Xiaofeng Liu

Optik 164 (2018) 654–660

Benefits of Energetic Ion Bombardment for Tailoring Stress and Microstructural Evolution During growth of Cu Thin Films
Felipe Cemin, Gregory Abadias, Tiberiu Minea, Clarisse Furgeaud, François Brisset, Denis Solas , Daniel Lundin

Acta Materialia 141 (2017) 120e130;

Stress Evolution in SiO Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries During Electrochemical Cycling
Jingze Zhang, Jian Zhang, Di Wang, Xiaohua Xie and Baojia Xia

Material Letters 190 (2017) 79-82

An Experimental Study of Residual Stress Induced Modulation of Vibration Characteristics in 1-D MEMS Resonators
Behera, A., Dangi, A., and Pratap, R.

Materials Performance and Characterization, ISSN 2379-1365.

Electrochemical and Stress Characteristics of SiO/Cu/Expanded Graphite Composite as Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries
Jingze Zhang, Jian Zhang, Tianzeng Bao, Xiaohua Xie and Baojia Xia

Journal of Power Sources 348 (2017) 16-20

Substrate-Influenced Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue of Copper Metallizations: Limits of Stoney’s Equation
Stephan Bigl , Stefan Wurster, Megan J. Cordill and Daniel Kiener

Materials 2017, 10(11), 1287; doi:10.3390/ma10111287

Mechanisms of Power Module Source Metal Degradation During Electro-Thermal Aging
Roberta Ruffilli, Mounira Berkani, Philippe Dupuy, Stephane Lefebvre, Yann Weber, Marc Legros

Microelectronics Reliability, Elsevier, 2017, 76-77, pp.507 – 511

Measurements of the Phase and Stress Evolution during Initial Lithiation of Sn Electrodes
Chun-Hao Chen, Eric Chason, and Pradeep R. Guduru

Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 164 (4) A574-A579 (2017)

Influence of HVPE Substrates on Homoepitaxy of GaN Grown by MOCVD
J.K. Hite, T.J. Anderson, L.E. Luna, J.C. Gallagher, M.A. Mastro, J.A. Freitas, C.R. Eddy Jr.

Journal of Crystal Growth 498 (2018) 352–356

Substrate-Influenced Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue of Copper Metallizations: Limits of Stoney’s Equation
Stephan Bigl, Stefan Wurster, Megan J. Cordill and Daniel Kiener

Materials 2017, 10, 1287

Film Thickness Dependent Microstructural Changes of Thick Copper Metallizations Upon Thermal Fatigue
Stephan Bigl, Claus O.W. Trost, Stefan Wurster, Megan J. Cordill and Daniel Kiener

Journal of Materials Research, Volume 32, No. 1, June 14, 2017, pp. 2022-2034

Effect of Intrinsic Stress on Structural and Optical Properties of Amorphous Si-Doped SnO2 Thin-Film
Honglong Ning, Xianzhe Liu, Hongke Zhang, Zhiqiang Fang, Wei Ca, Jianqiu Chen, Rihui Yao, Miao Xu, Lei Wang, Linfeng Lan, Junbiao Peng, Xiaofeng Wang and Zichen Zhang

Materials 2017, 10, 24

In Situ Stress Observation in Oxide Films and How Tensile Stress Influences Oxygen Ion Conduction
Aline Fluri, Daniele Pergolesi, Vladimir Roddatis, Alexander Wokaun and Thomas Lippert

Nature Communications 10.1038/ncomms10692 (2016)

Volmer-Weber Growth Stages of Polycrystalline Metal Films Probed by In Situ and Real-Time Optical Diagnostics.
G. Abadias, L. Simonot, J.J. Colin, A. Michel, S. Camelio, and D. Babonneau

Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 183105 (2015)

Porous Thick Film Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite Stress and Oxygen Surface Exchange Bilayer Curvature Relaxation Measurements
Qing Yang and Jason D. Nicholas

Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 161 (11) F3025-F3031 (2014)

In Situ Measurement of CuPt Alloy Ordering Using Strain Anisotropy
Ryan M. France, William E. McMahon, Joongoo Kang, Myles A. Steiner, and John F. Geisz

Journal of Appl. Physics, 115, 053502, 2014

In Situ Oxygen Surface Exchange Coefficient Measurements on Lanthanum Strontium Ferrite Thin Films Via the Curvature Relaxation Method
Qing Yang, Theodore E. Burye, Richard R. Lunt, and Jason D. Nicholas

Solid State Ionics 249–250 (2013) 123–128

In Situ Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Wafer Curvature Measurements During Formation of Thin Palladium Silicide Film on Si(001) and Si(111)
J. Fouet, M.I. Richard, C. Mocuta, C. Guichet, O. Thomas

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B 284 (2012), pp 74-77

In Situ Stress Evolution During Growth of Transition Metal Nitride Films and Nanocomposites
G. Abadias, L.E. Koutsokeras, P.A. Patsalas, W. Leroy, D. Delpa, S.V. Zlotsi, V.V. Uglov

Nanomaterials: Applications and Properties (NAP-2011). Vol.1, PartII

In Situ Measurement of Biaxial Modulus of Si Anode for Li-ion Batteries
V.A. Sethuraman, M.J. Chon, M. Shimshak, N. Van Winkle, P.R. Guduru

Electrochemistry Communications, 12(11), 1614-1617 2010

In Situ Measurement of the Internal Stress Evolution During Sputter Deposition of ZnO:Al
S. Michotte, J.Proost

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 98 (2012) 253–259

Periodic Variation of Stress in Sputter Deposited Si/WSi2 Multilayers
Kimberly MacArthur, Bing Shi, Ray Conley and Albert T. Macrander

Applied Physics Letters 99, 081905 (2011)

On the use of a Multiple Beam Optical Sensor for In Situ Curvature Monitoring in Liquids
Q. Van Overmeere, J.-F. Vanhumbeeck, and J. Proost

Review of Scientific Instruments 81, 045106, 2010

The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System
Ray Conley, Nathalie Bouet, James Biancarosa, Qun Shen, Larry Boas, John Feraca, Leonard Rosenbaum

SPIE 2009

Correlation of Growth Stress and Structural Evolution During Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of GaN on (111) Si
Srinivasan Raghavan, Xiaojun Weng, Elizabeth Dickey, and Joan M. Redwing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University

Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 88, 041904, 2006

Growth stresses and cracking in GaN films on (111) Si grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. I. AlN buffer layers
Srinivasan Raghavan and Joan Redwing Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University

Journal of Appl. Physics, 98, 023514, 2005

Evolution of Surface Morphology and Film Stress During MOCVD Growth of InN on Sapphire Substrates
Abhishek Jain, Srinivasan Raghavan, Joan M. Redwing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University

Journal of Crystal Growth 269 128-133, 2004

In Situ Stress Measurements During MOCVD Growth of AlGaN on SiC
Jeremy D. Acord, Srinivasan Raghavan, David W. Snyder, Joan M. Redwing, Materials Research Institute and Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University

Journal of Crystal Growth 272, 65-71, 2004

Effect of AlN Interlayers on Growth Stress in GaN Layers Deposited on (111) Si
Srinivasan Raghavan, Xiaojun Weng, Elizabeth Dickey, and Joan M. Redwing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University

Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 87, 142101 2005

Real-Time Strain Evolution During Growth of InxAl1-xAs/GaAs Metamorphic Buffer Layers
C. Lynch, R. Beresford, and E. Chason, Brown University

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 1539 2004

Evolution of the Growth Stress, Stiffness, and Microstructure of Alumina Thin Films During Vapor Deposition
Joris Proost and Frans Spaepen, Harvard University

Journal of Appl. Phys., Vol. 91, No. 1, 1 Jan. 2002

Intrinsic Stress Development in Ti-C:H Ceramic Nanocomposite Coatings
B. Shi and W. J. Meng – Louisiana State University

L. E. Rehn and P. M. Baldo – Argonne National Laboratory

Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 81, No.2, 8 July 2002

Stress Evolution During Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of GaN
S. Hearne, E. Chason, J. Han, J. A. Floro, J. Figiel, and J. Hunter, H. Amano, I. S. T. Tsong

Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 74, no. 3, 1999

Stress Evolution in Sputtered FCC Metal Multilayers
Vidya Ramaswamy, William D. Nix, and Bruce M. Clemens

Stanford University

Stress Evolution During Growth of Sputtered Ni/Cu Multilayers
Vidya Ramaswamy, Bruce M. Clemens, and William D. Nix

Stanford University 1997

Stress and Defect Control in GaN Using Low Temperature Interlayers
Hiroshi Amano, Motoaki Iwaya, Takayuki Kashima, Maki Katsuragawa, Isamu Akasaki, Jung Han, Sean Hearne, Jerry A. Floro, Eric Chason and Jeffrey Figiel

Appl. Phys. Part.1, Vol. 37, no.12B, 1998

Real Time Measurement of Epilayer Strain Using a Simplified Water Curvature Technique
J. A. Floro, E. Chason, and S. R. Lee

Sandia National Laboratories 1996

Measuring Ge Segregation by Real-Time Stress Monitoring During Si 1-xGe x Molecular Beam Epitaxy
J. A. Floro and E. Chason

Appl. Phys. Lett 69, 1996 (p. 3830)

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