A real time absolute temperature measurement in ranges that pyrometers cannot measure: substrates transparent in the IR (including GaN, SiC, ZnO, AlN, Ga2O3 and SrTiO3), as well as low temperature monitoring.


The kSA BandiT is a non-contact, non-invasive, real-time, absolute wafer and thin-film temperature monitoring tool used during thin-film deposition and thermal processing. Using the temperature-dependent optical absorption edge inherent in semiconductor materials, kSA BandiT provides semiconductor temperature monitoring in ranges that pyrometers cannot measure: substrates transparent in the infrared (including GaN, SiC, ZnO, AlN, Ga2O3 and SrTiO3), as well as low temperature monitoring, e.g. low temperature GaAs, InP, and Si deposition. Furthermore, kSA BandiT is immune to changing viewport transmission, stray light, and signal contribution from substrate or source heaters, all sources of measurement error for pyrometers.

BandiT on ChamberCombined with its patented blackbody emission monitor, kSA BandiT has the ability to monitor the full range of temperatures for most substrate materials, including low band-gap substrates and metal films. Finally, because kSA BandiT uses a solid-state spectrometer, real-time film thickness and surface roughness can also be measured.


For more information see the BandiT Product Specification Sheet →
For more information see the UV BandiT Product Specification Sheet →
For the latest BandiT calibration files see our Support Page →

Film Thickness and Roughness Measurement

Because a solid-state spectrometer is used with the kSA BandiT system, the full diffuse spectra is obtained. This spectra contains a wealth of information in addition to the material absorption edge. By analyzing the below gap interference fringes, the total film thickness can be very accurately determined. By analyzing the above gap scatter signal, changes in roughness can be easily monitored. Combined with real-time temperature measurement, kSA BandiT offers a very powerful in situ monitoring tool for your thin-film deposition and processing needs.

What You Get With a kSA BandiT System

Growth-Induced Temperature Changes During Transition Metal Nitride Epitaxy on Transparent SiC Substrates
Douglas Scott Katzer, Matthew T. Hardy, Neeraj Nepal, Brian P. Downey, Eric N. Jin, and David J. Meyer

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 38, 032204 (2020) https://doi.org/10.1116/6.0000063

Mid-Infrared Electroluminescence From Type-II In(Ga)Sb Quantum Dots
Andrew F. Briggs, Leland J. Nordin, Aaron J. Muhowski, Priyanka Petluru, David Silva, Daniel Wasserman, and Seth R. Bank

Applied Phyiscs Letters 116, 061103 (2020) https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5134808

MBE Growth and Characterization of Strained HgTe (111) Films on CdTe/GaAs
Jian Zhang, Shengxi Zhang, Xiaofang Qiu, Yan Wu, Qiang Sun, Jin Zou, Tianxin Li, Pingping Chen

China Physics Letters, Vol. 37, No. 3 (2020) 038101 https://doi.org/10.1088/0256-307X/37/3/038101

Strain Stabilization of Far From Equilibrium GaAsBi Films
Margaret A. Stevens, Kevin A. Grossklaus, Thomas E. Vandervelde

Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 527, 1 December 2019, 125216; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2019.125216

Separate Control of Number Density and Xize of ErAs Nanoparticles by a Modified Diffusion Length Process Using Two Flux Conditions During Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Yuanchang Zhang, Kurt G. Eyink, Madelyn Hill, Brittany Urwin, Krishnamurthy Mahalingam

Links Between Bismuth Incorporation and Surface Reconstruction During GaAsBi Growth Probed by In Situ Measurements
Cornille, A. Arnoult, Q. Gravelier, and C. Fontaine


J. Appl. Phys. 126, 093106 (2019); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5111932

Superconducting Proximity Effect in InAsSb Surface Quantum Wells With In Situ Al Contact
William Mayer, William F. Schiela, Joseph Yuan, Mehdi Hatefipour, Wendy L. Sarney, Stefan P. Svensson, Asher C. Le, Tiago Campos, Kaushini S. Wickramasinghe, Matthieu C. Dartiailh, IgorZuticc, and Javad Shabani

arXiv:1909.12571 [cond-mat.mes-hall]

In Situ Band-Edge Monitoring of Cd1−yZnyTe Substrates for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of HgCdTe
Jacobs, R.N., Pinkie, B., Arias, J. et al.

Journal of Elec Materi (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11664-019-07354-9

Spin Generation in Completely MBE Grown Co2FeSi/MgO/GaAs Lateral Spin Valves
Georg Hoffmann, Jens Herfort, Manfred Ramsteiner

arXiv.org (20 June 2019) Cornell University arXiv:1906.08661v1 [cond-mat.mes-hall]

Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of InAs/AlSb Superlattices on GaAs Substrates
D. Benyahia, Ł. Kubiszyn, K .Michalczewski, A. Kębłowski, K. Grodecki, P. Martyniuk

Journal of Crystal Growth https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2019.06.013

Microstructural Evolution of High Quality AlN Grown by PAMBE Under Different Growth Conditions
Neha Aggarwal, Shibinv Krishna, Shubhendra Kumar Jain, Monu Mishra, K.K. Maury, Sandeep Singh, Mandeep Kaur, Govind Gupta

Materials Science and Engineering: B, Volume 243, April 2019, Pages 71-77 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2019.03.020

Unusual Step Meandering Due to Ehrlich-Schwobel Barrier in GaN Epitaxy on the N-polar Surface
Henryk Turski, Filip Krzyżewski, AnnaFeduniewicz-Żmuda, Pawel Wolny, Marcin Siekacz, Grzegorz Muziol, Caroline Cheze, Krzesimir Nowakowski-Szukudlarek, Huili Grace Xing, Debdeep Jena, Magdalena Zaluska-Kotur, Czeslaw Skierbiszewski

Applied Surface Science, 9 April 2019 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.04.082

Impact on Photon-Assisted Charge Carrier Transport by Engineering Electrodes of GaN Based UV Photodetectors
Neha Aggarwal, Shibin Krishna, Shubhendra Kumar Jain, Arzoo Arora, Lalit Goswami, Alka Sharma, Sudhir Husale, Abhiram Gundimeda, Govind Gupta

Journal of Alloys and Compounds https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.01.198

Epitaxial Growth of Co2FeSi/MgO/GaAs (001) Heterostructures Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy
G. Hoffmann, B. Jenichen, J. Herfort

Journal of Crystal Growth https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2019.02.029

Influence of Temperature and Al/N Ratio on Structural, Chemical & Electronic Properties of Epitaxial AlN Films Grown Via PAMBE
Shubhendra Kumar Jain, Monu Mishra, Neha Aggarwal, Shibin Krishna, Bhasker Gahtori, Akhilesh Pandey, Govind Gupta

Applied Surface Science, Volume 455, 15 October 2018, Pages 919-923

Single-Photon Detectors Integrated in Quantum Photonic
Digeronimo, G.E.

Digeronimo, G.E. (2018); Eindhoven: Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

Terahertz Excitation Spectra of GaAsBi Alloys
V Pačebutas, S Stanionytė, A Arlauskas, R Norkus, R Butkutė, A Geižutis, B Čechavičius and A Krotkus

2018 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 51 474001; https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aadb11

Kinetically Controlled Dewetting of Thin GaAs Cap From an ErAs/GaAs Nanoparticle Composite Layer
Yuanchang Zhang, Kurt G. Eyink, Brittany Urwin, Krishnamurthy Mahalingam, Madelyn R. Hill, and Larry Grazulis

Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B 36, 041801 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1116/1.5030864

Influence of Solute Partitioning on the Microstructure and Growth Stresses in Nanocrystalline Fe(Cr) Thin Films
Xuyang Zhou, Gregory B.Thompson

Thin Solid Films, Volume 648, 28 February 2018, Pages 83-93 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2018.01.007

Chapter 30 – Mass Production of Optoelectronic Devices
Roland Jäger

Molecular Beam Epitaxy (Second Edition): From Research to Mass Production 2018, Pages 677-692 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812136-8.00032-3

Effects of In Situ UV Irradiation on the Uniformity and Optical Properties of GaAsBi Epi-Layers Grown by MBE
Daniel A. Beaton, M. Steger, T. Christian, A. Mascarenhas

Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 484, 15 February 2018, Pages 7-11 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2017.12.026

Ultra-Short Period Ga-free Superlattice Growth on GaSb
W. L. Sarney, S. P. Svensson, M. K. Yakes, Y. Xu, D. Donetsky, and G. Belenky

Journal of Applied Physics 124, 035304 (2018) https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5029328

Toward Deterministic Construction of Low Noise Avalanche Photodetector Materials
A. K. Rockwell, M. Ren, M. Woodson, A. H. Jones, S. D. March, Y. Tan, Y. Yuan, Y. Sun, R. Hool, S. J. Maddox, M. L. Lee, A. W. Ghosh, J. C. Campbell, and S. R. Bank

Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 102106 (2018) doi: 10.1063/1.5040592

Revealing the Hidden Heavy Fermi Liquid in CaRuO3
Yang Liu, Hari P. Nair, Jacob P. Ruf, Darrell G. Schlom, and Kyle M. Shen

Phys. Rev. B 98, 041110(R) – Published 25 July 2018 https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.98.041110

Growth Rate Independence of Mg Doping in GaN Grown by Plasma-Assisted MBE
Henryk Turski, Grzegorz Muzioł, Marcin Siekacz, Pawel Wolny, Krzesimir Szkudlarek, Anna Feduniewicz-Żmuda, Krzysztof Dybko, Czeslaw Skierbiszewski

Journal of Crystal Growth Volume 482, 15 January 2018, Pages 56-60 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2017.11.001

Composition, Microstructure, and Electrical Performance of Sputtered SnO Thin Films for p-Type Oxide Semiconductor
Seung Jun Lee, Younjin Jang, Han Joon Kim, Eun Suk Hwang, Seok Min Jeon, Jun Shik Kim, Taehwan Moon, Kyung-Tae Jang, Young-Chang Joo, Deok-Yong Cho, and Cheol Seong Hwang

ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2018 10 (4), 3810-3821 ; DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b17906

Phase and Microstructures in Sputter Deposited Nanocrystalline Fe-Cr Thin Films
Xuyang Zhou , Gregory B. Thompson

Materialia (2018), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtla.2018.07.007

Crystallographically Aligned 1.508 eV Nitrogen Pairs in Ultra-Dilute GaAs:N
Brian Fluegel et al

2018 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57 090302; https://doi.org/10.7567/JJAP.57.090302

Vapor-Defect-Solid Growth Mechanism for NanoNets Utilizing Natural Defect Networks in Polycrystals
Zumin Wang, Eric J.Mittemeijer

Materials & Design, Volume 150, 15 July 2018, Pages 206-214; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2018.04.005

Luminescent N-polar (In, Ga) N/GaN Quantum Wells Achieved by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy at Temperatures Exceeding 700° C
C. Chèze, F. Feix, J. Lähnemann, T. Flissikowski, M. Kryśko, P. Wolny, H. Turski, C. Skierbiszewski, and O. Brandt

Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, 022102 (2018); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5009184

Influence of Temperature and Al/N Ratio on Structural, Chemical & Electronic Properties of Epitaxial AlN Films Grown Via PAMBE
Shubhendra Kumar Jain, Monu Mishra, Neha Aggarwal, Shibin Krishna, Bhasker Gahtori, Akhilesh Pandey, Govind Gupta

Applied Surface Science, Volume 455, 15 October 2018, Pages 919-923; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.06.070

Self-Assembled Stoichiometric Barium Titanate Thin Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
T. Al.Morgan, M.Zamani-Alavijeh, S.Erickson, G.Story, W.Schroeder, A.Kuchuk, M.Benamar, G.J.Salamo

Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 493, 1 July 2018, Pages 15-19; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2018.04.023

High-Performance SWIR/MWIR and MWIR/MWIR Bispectral MCT Detectors by AIM
Heinrich Figgemeier, Christopher Ames, Johannes Beetz, Rainer Breiter, Detlef Eich, et al.

Conference Proceedings of SPIE Defense + Security, 2018, Orlando, Florida, United States

Electrical Properties of Midwave and Longwave InAs/GaSb Superlattices Grown on GaAs Substrates by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Benyahia, Ł. Kubiszyn, K. Michalczewski, J. Boguski, A. Kębłowski, P. Martyniuk, J. Piotrowski and A. Rogalski

Nanoscale Research Letters (2018) 13:196

Self-Assembled Barium Titanate Nanoscale Films by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Timothy Allen Morgan

University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, 2018

Interfacial Misfit Array Technique for GaSb Growth on GaAs
(001) Substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
D. Benyahia, Ł. Kubiszyn, K. Michalczewski, A. Keblowski, 
P. Martyniuk, J. Piotrowski, and A. Rogalski

Journal of Electronic Materials, 07 September 2017

A Highly Responsive Self-Driven UV Photodetector Using GaN Nanoflowers
N. Aggarwal, S. Krishna, A. Sharma, L. Goswami, D. Kumar, S. Husale, G. Gupta

Adv. Electron. Mater. 2017, 3, 1700036; https://doi.org/10.1002/aelm.201700036

Tailoring the Optical Properties of InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots by Means of GaAsSb, InGaAs and InGaAsSb Strain Reducing Layers
A.Salhi, S.Alshaibani, B.Ilahi, M.Alhamdan, A.Alyamani, H.Albrithen, M.El-Desouki

Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 714, August 2017, Pages 331-337

Electron-Beam Deposition of Superconducting Molybdenum Thin Films for the Development of Mo/Au TES X-ray Microcalorimeter
Fred Michael Finkbeiner, Joseph S. Adams, Simon R. Bandler, Gabriele L. Betancourt-Martinez, Ari David Brown, Meng-Ping Chang, James A. Chervenak, Meng P. Chiao, Aaron M. Datesman, Megan E. Eckart, Richard L. Kelley, Caroline A. Kilbourne, Antoine R. Miniussi, Samuel J. Moseley, Frederick Scott Porter, John E. Sadleir, Kazuhiro Sakai, Stephen James Smith, Nicholas A. Wakeham, Edward J. Wassell, and Wonisk Yoon

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, VOL. 27, NO. 4, JUNE 2017

Carrier Dynamics in GaAsBi Quantum Wells
S. Azaizia, A. Balocchi, D. Lagarde, A. Arnoult, X. Marie, C. Fontaine, H. Carrère

Nanotechnology Materials and Devices Conference, 2016 IEEE

ErAsSb Nanoparticle Growth on GaAs Surface by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Yuanchang Zhang, Kurt G. Eyink, Joseph Peoples, Krishnamurthy Mahalingam, Madelyn Hill, Larry Grazulis

Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol 435, 2016, pp. 62-67

MCT by MBE on GaAs at AIM: State of the Art and Roadmap
H. Figgemeier, J. Wenisch, D. Eich, S. Hanna, W. Schirmacher, H. Lutz, T. Schallenberg, R. Breiter

Proc. SPIE 9451, Infrared Technology and Applications XLI, 945127 (June 4, 2015)

Growth and Characterization of Epitaxial Al Layers on GaAs and Si Substrates for Superconducting CPW Resonators in Scalable Quantum Computing Systems
Julie Tournet, University of Waterloo

University of Waterloo Theses & Dissertations, 2015

Evaluation of HgCdTe on GaAs Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy for High-Operating-Temperature Infrared Detector Applications
J. Wenisch, W. Schirmacher, R. Wollrab, D. Eich, S. Hanna, R. Breiter, H. Lutz, and H. Figgemeier

Journal of Electronic Materials September 2015, Volume 44, Issue 9, pp 3002-3006

Molecular beam epitaxial growth of Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 topological insulators on GaAs (111) substrates: a potential route to fabricate topological insulator p-n junction
Zhaoquan Zeng, Timothy A. Morgan, Dongsheng Fan, Chen Li, Yusuke Hirono, Xian Hu, Yanfei Zhao, Joon
Sue Lee, Jian Wang, Zhiming M. Wang, Shuiqing Yu, Michael E. Hawkridge, Mourad Benamara, and Gregory J. Salamo

AIP Advances 3, 072112 (2013); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4815972

Reduction of Process Variation Through Automated Substrate Temperature Uniformity Mapping in Multi-Wafer MBE Systems
Thomas J. Rogers, Likang Li, Robert Yanka, Chris Santana, Jason R. Williams, Charles A. Taylor II, Darryl Barlett

The International Conference on Compound Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology 2008

Adsorption-Controlled Molecular-Beam Epitaxial Growth of BiFeO3
J.F. Ihlefeld, A. Kumar, V. Gopalan, D.G. Schlom, Y.B. Chen, X.Q. Pan, T. Heeg, J. Schubert, X. Ke, P. Schiffer, J. Orenstein, L.W. Martin, Y.H. Chu, and R. Rames

Applied Physics Letters 91, 2007, pp. 071922

Substrate Temperature Measurement Using a Commercial Band-Edge Detection System
I. Farrer, J.J. Harris, R. Thomson, D. Barlett, C.A. Taylor II, and D.A. Ritchie

2006 MBE Conference: Tokyo

Growth Related Interference Effects in Band Edge Thermometry of Semiconductors.
R. N. Sacks, D. Barlett, C. A. Taylor II, and J. Williams

J.V.S.T. B 23, 2005

In Situ Temperature Control of MBE Growth Using Band-Edge Thermometry.
Shane Johnson, Chau-Hong Kuo, Martin Boonzaayer, Wolfgang Braun, Ulrich Koelle, Yong-Hang Zhang, and John Roth

J.V.S.T. B 16, 1998, pp. 1502-1506

Precision of Noninvasive Temperature Measurement by Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy.
T.P. Pearsall, Stevan R. Saban, James Booth, Barrett T. Beard Jr., and S.R. Johnson

Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 1995, pp. 4977-4980

Diffuse optical reflectivity measurements on GaAs during MBE processing.
C. Lavoie, S.R. Johnson, J.A. Mackenzie, T. Tiedje, and T. van Buuren.

J.V.S.T. A 10, 1992, pp. 930-933

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