The kSA 400 is an analytical Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED) system that puts powerful information at your fingertips. Whether analyzing a static diffraction pattern, or acquiring data during high-speed substrate rotation, the kSA 400 helps you use the valuable wealth of information contained within the RHEED system.


The kSA 400 combines a high-resolution, high-speed, and high-sensitivity CCD camera with sophisticated RHEED-specific acquisition and analysis software. This flexible system enables the analysis of virtually any image feature and, with one of many additional options, controls the electron gun for such tasks as acquiring RHEED rocking curves.

Easy to use and straightforward to install, the kSA 400 is designed for convenience and gives quantitative results right out of the box. Seamless integration between hardware and software as well as visually-driven RHEED pattern analysis, makes user operation straightforward and simple. Extensive customer input has helped us make the kSA 400 the industry’s most powerful analytical RHEED system and an integral part of MBE, PLD, PVD, and surface science chambers worldwide. Now in its fifth generation, the goal of the kSA 400 is to provide you with the most information from your RHEED pattern.

For more information see the Product Specification Sheet →

Growth Rate

The most common use of RHEED is for determining growth rate via RHEED intensity oscillations, a phenomena that occurs during layer-by-layer epitaxial growth. The kSA 400 determines growth rate via three complimentary methods: Fourier-transform, extrema count (derivative analysis), and damped sine wave fitting. These three techniques determine growth rate independently, resulting in very accurate and consistent measurement of your thin-film growth rate. Watch the kSA 400 monitor RHEED oscillations.

kSA 400

The kSA 400 is the most advanced, full featured RHEED data acquisition and analysis package available. With a long list of capabilities, and available plug-in options, the kSA 400 offers the most insight from RHEED patterns. The kSA 400 RHEED analysis software has camera control options; data acquisition modes;  acquisition, image analysis, data analysis, and export capabilities; and data storage and communications options.

kSA 400 Lite

A RHEED acquisition and analysis package for those requiring only basic image capture and data analysis. The kSA 400 Lite package can be upgraded to the full featured version of kSA 400 at any time. The kSA 400 Lite RHEED analysis software has full camera control features; pared down data acquisition modes; acquisition, image analysis, data analysis, and export capabilities; and data storage and communications options.

kSA 400 AOS

An Analysis Only version designed for users who want to perform post-acquisition display, processing, and analysis away from the laboratory. The RHEED analysis-only software (kSA 400 AOS) license is available to users who currently own a full kSA 400 system.

What You Get With a kSA 400 System

  • High resolution, high S/N camera
  • Optic Mounts for mounting to the RHEED screen viewport
  • Appropriate cabling
  • kSA 400 or kSA 400 Lite software (compatible with Win XP, Win 7 32-bit, and Win 7 64-bit)
  • kSA 400 RHEED Image Library (full version of kSA 400 only)
  • Computer (optional)

The kSA 400 supports several plug-in options to give you even more analytical capability. These plug-ins include:

These options can be added to a standard kSA 400 system at any time, and typically include a software plug-in and hardware additions. One of our most popular plug-in options is RHEED Electron Gun Control, which allows you to control all the settings of your RHEED gun through the kSA 400 software. The kSA 400 software also allows you to acquire RHEED images while varying gun control parameters e.g. beam rocking acquisition which is supported on Staib beam rocking electron guns.

Figure 2: Partial folder list of kSA 400 RIL.
Figure 1: Partial folder list of kSA 400 RIL.

The kSA 400 RHEED Image Library (RIL) is a compilation of images and movies acquired from our kSA 400 customers, to the tune of ~ 30 gbytes of data. We have asked our customers to document the details of the conditions under which the data was taken, e.g. what the growth conditions are (temperature substrate, etc.), what the crystal orientation is, what the beam energy is, and so on. These details are either in the file name or in the Comments section of the file

We envision the use of the RIL to be mainly as a reference library for RHEED. Here are some examples of how we envision the RIL being used:

  • You’re curious about what the oxide desorption process looks like for a GaAs substrate, so you load a GaAs desorb movie from the RIL and watch the evolution of the RHEED pattern as the oxide desorption occurs.
  • You are working with SrTiO3 substrates, and you’d like to compare your RHEED patterns to those other researchers in your field are checking, for example, the width and length of the diffraction streaks as an indication of surface quality.
  • You are teaching a surface science class and are on the topic of RHEED, and you’d like the students to check the ratio of lattice spacings along different crystal directions to verify the bcc structure of a material. You have the students pull up a GaAs movie, identify the major pull crystal directions (rotating substrate movie), and have them check the ratios of pixel spacings.
  • You’d like to see what the growth of Ge quantum dots on Si looks like via RHEED.
  • You’d like to look at GaAs on GaAs RHEED oscillations, and test our growth rate algorithms (we have 3 different algorithms in the kSA 400) on this movie data.
ril reprocessing data files
Figure 2: Reprocessing of RIL data file (GaAs [110] growth 590C 1mls.imm) using Scan Mode Acquisition mode in the kSA 400. Very clean RHEED oscillations from all streaks except the specular streak are seen in this GaAs homoepitaxial growth.

Beam Rocking Auger Electron Spectroscopy of a Si(111)√3×√3-Ag Surface
Yoshimi Horio, Hitoshi Nakahara, Junji Yuhara, Yuji Takakuwa

e-Journal of Surface Science and Nanotechnology, 2020, Volume 18, Pages 139-145, Released April 09, 2020, Online ISSN 1348-0391

Roles of Strain and Carrier in Silicon Oxidation
Shuichi Ogawa, Akitaka Yoshigoe, Jiayi Tang, Yuki Sekihata, and Yuji Takakuwa

2020 Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 59 SM0801

Machine Learning Analysis of Perovskite Oxides Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Sydney R. Provence, Suresh Thapa, Rajendra Paudel, Tristan Truttmann, Abhinav Prakash, Bharat Jalan, Ryan B. Comes

arXiv:2004.00080 [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]

Highly Responsive, Self-Powered a-GaN Based UV-A Photodetectors Driven by Unintentional Asymmetrical Electrodes
Rohit Pant, Deependra Kumar Singh, Arun Mall Chowdhury, Basanta Roul, Karuna Kar Nanda, and Saluru Baba Krupanidhi

ACS Applied Electronic Materials, Feb. 21, 2020

Stabilization of the Perovskite Phase in PMN-PT Epitaxial Thinfilms via Increased Interface Roughness
Urška Gabor, Damjan Vengust, Zoran Samardžija, Aleksander Matavž, Vid Bobnar, Danilo Suvorov, MatjažSpreitzer

Applied Surface Science, 513 (2020)

Layer-Controlled Laws of Electron Transport in Two-Dimensional Ferromagnets
Oleg E. Parfenov, Andrey M. Tokmachev, Dmitry V. Averyanov, Igor A. Karateev, Ivan S.Sokolov, Alexander N. Taldenkov, Vyacheslav G. Storchak

Materials Today, Volume 29, October 2019, Pages 20-25;

Epitaxial n++-InGaAs Ultra-Shallow Junctions for Highly Scaled n-MOS Devices
P. Tejedor, M. Drescher, L. Vázqueza, L. Wildeb

Applied Surface Science, Volume 496, 1 December 2019, 147321;

Probing Proximity Effects in the Ferromagnetic Semiconductor EuO
Dmitry V. Averyanov, Andrey M.Tokmachev, Oleg E.Parfenov, Igor A.Karateev, Ivan S.Sokolov, Alexander N.Taldenkov, Mikhail S.Platunov, Fabrice Wilhelm, AndreiRogalev, Vyacheslav G.Storchak

Applied Surface Science, Volume 488, 15 September 2019, Pages 107-114;

Investigation into the Memristor Effect in Nanocrystalline ZnO Films
Smirnov, V.A., Tominov, R.V., Avilov, V.I. et al.

Semiconductors (2019) 53: 72;

Photodetection Properties of Nonpolar a‐Plane GaN Grown by Three Approaches Using Plasma‐Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Rohit Kumar Pant Deependra Kumar Singh Basanta Roul Arun Malla Chowdhury Greeshma Chandan Karuna K. Nanda Saluru B. Krupanidhi

PSSA Applications and Materials Science, Volume 216, Issue 18, September 2019, 1900171;

Electron-Stimulated Aluminum Nitride Crystalline Phase Formation on the Sapphire Surface
Denis Milakhin, Timur Malin, Vladimir Mansurov, Yury Galitsyn, Konstantin Zhuravlev

Phys. Status Solidi B, Volume 256, Issue 6;

Real-time monitoring and control of nitride growth rates by Metal Modulated Epitaxy
Kent L. Averett, John B. Hatch, Kurt G. Eyink, Cynthia T. Bowers, Krishnamurthy Mahalingam

Journal of Crystal Growth, Volume 517, 1 July 2019, Pages 12-16

Interface-Induced Anomalous Hall Conductivity in a Confined Metal
Oleg E. Parfenov, Dmitry V. Averyanov, Andrey M. Tokmachev, Igor A. Karateev, Alexander N. Taldenkov, Oleg A. Kondratev, and Vyacheslav G. Storchak

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2018, 10 (41), pp 35589–35598

High Mobility Single-Crystalline-Like Silicon Thin Films on Inexpensive Flexible Metal Foils by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition
P.Dutta, Y.Gao, M. Rathi, Y. Yao, Y.Li, M. Iliev, J. Martinez, V. Selvamanickam

Acta Materialia, Volume 147, 1 April 2018, Pages 51-58

Order Parameter and Band Gap of ZnSnN2
R. A. Makin et al.

2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), Waikoloa Village, HI, USA, 2018, pp. 3865-3868. doi: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8548103

Atomic Structure of Sr/Si(001)(1×2) Surfaces Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition
Tjaša Parkelj Potočnik, Erik Zupanič, Wen-Yi Tong, Eric Bousquet, Daniel Diaz Fernandez, Gertjan Koster, Philippe Ghosez, Matjaž Spreitzer

Applied Surface Science

Stress Generation and Evolution in Oxide Heteroepitaxy
Aline Fluri, Daniele Pergolesi, Alexander Wokaun, and Thomas Lippert

Phys. Rev. B 97, Iss. 12 — 15 March 2018;

An Experimental Study of Residual Stress Induced Modulation of Vibration Characteristics in 1-D MEMS Resonators
Behera, A., Dangi, A., and Pratap, R.

Materials Performance and Characterization, ISSN 2379-1365.

Emerging Two-Dimensional Ferromagnetism in Silicene Materials
Andrey M. Tokmachev, Dmitry V. Averyanov, Oleg E. Parfenov, Alexander N. Taldenkov, Igor A. Karateev, Ivan S. Sokolov, Oleg A. Kondratev & Vyacheslav G. Storchak

Nature Communications, (2018) 9:1672, doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04012-2

Role of the Phase Transition at GaN QDs Formation on (0001)AlN Surface by Ammonia Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Konfederatova, K.A., Mansurov, V.G., Malin, T.V. et al.

J Therm Anal Calorim (2018) 133: 1181;

Room-Temperature Growth of Thin Films of Niobium on Strontium Titanate (0 0 1) Single-Crystal Substrates for Superconducting Joints
Yuhei Shimizu, Kazuhiko Tonooka, Yoshiyuki Yoshida, Mitsuho Furuse, Hiroshi Takashima

Applied Surface Science 444 (2018) 71–74

Direct epitaxial integration of the ferromagnetic semiconductor EuO with Si(1 1 1)
Dmitry V. Averyanov, Peter E. Terin, Yuri G. Sadofyev, Andrey M. Tokmachev, Alexey E. Primenko, Igor A. Likhachev & Vyacheslav G. Storchak

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Volume 459, 1 August 2018, Pages 136-140;

Preparation of YBa2Cu3O7−δ and La1.85Sr0.15CuO4 Bilayer Structure for Superconducting Connection
Yuhei Shimizu , Hiroshi Takashima, Yoshiyuki Yoshida, and Mitsuho Furuse

IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 28, No. 4, June 2018

Emerging Two-Dimensional Ferromagnetism in Silicene Materials
Andrey M. Tokmachev1, Dmitry V. Averyanov1, Oleg E. Parfenov1, Alexander N. Taldenkov1, Igor A. Karateev1, Ivan S. Sokolov1, Oleg A. Kondratev1 & Vyacheslav G. Storchak

NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, (2018) 9:1672, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-04012-2

Influence of Surface Structures on Quality of CdTe (100) Thin Films Grown on GaAs (100) Substrates
Yi Gu, Hui-Jun Zheng, Xi-Ren Chen, Jia-Ming Li, Tian-Xiao Nie, Xu-Feng Kou

CHIN. PHYS. LETT. Vol. 35, No. 8 (2018) 086801

Control of Spin-Wave Damping in Radio Frequency Components Using Spin Currents from Topological Insulators
A Navabi-Shirazi

Thesis - UCLA, 2018

High-Temperature Magnetism in Graphene Induced by Proximity to EuO
Dmitry V. Averyanov, Ivan S. Sokolov, Andrey M. Tokmachev, Oleg E. Parfenov, Igor A. Karateev, Alexander N. Taldenkov, and Vyacheslav G. Storchak

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10, 24, 20767-20774; DOI: 10.1021/acsami.8b04289

Role of the Phase Transition at GaN QDs Formation on (0001) AlN Surface by Ammonia Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Kseniya A. Konfederatova, Vladimir G. Mansurov, Timur V. Malin, Yurij G. Galitsyn, Ivan A. Aleksandrov, Vladimir I. Vdovin, Konstantin S. Zhuravlev

J Therm Anal Calorim (2018) 133: 1181;

Indium Thin Films in Multilayer Superconducting Quantum Circuits
McRae, Corey Rae

Thesis - 2018, University of Waterloo

Coupling of Magnetic Orders in a 4f Metal/Oxide System
Dmitry V. Averyanov, Andrey M. Tokmachev, Oleg E. Parfenov, Igor A. Karateev, Alexander N. Taldenkov and Vyacheslav G. Storchak

J. Mater. Chem. C, 2018, Advance Article first published on 29 Aug 2018;

Growth of Ordered and Disordered ZnSnN2
Robert Allen Makin, Nancy Senabulya, James Mathis, N. Feldberg, P. Miska, Roy Clarke, and Steven M. Durbin

Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics: Materials, Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena 35, 02B116 (2017);

High Mobility Single-Crystalline-Like Silicon Thin Films on Inexpensive Flexible Metal Foils by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition
P.Dutta, Y.Gao, M.Rathi, Y.Yao, Y.Li, M.Iliev, J.Martinez, V.Selvamanickama

Acta Materialia Volume 147, 1 April 2018, Pages 51-58

Thin Film Metrology and Microwave Loss Characterization of Indium and Aluminum/Indium Superconducting Planar Resonators
C.R.H. McRae, J.H. Béjanin, C.T. Earnest, T.G. McConkey, J.R. Rinehart, C. Deimert,
J.P. Thomas, Z.R. Wasilewski, and M. Mariantoni

Journal of Applied Physics 123, 205304 (2018); doi/10.1063/1.5020514

Anisotropic Magnetic Damping Studies in β-Ta/2D-Epitaxial-Py Bilayers
Nilamani Behera, Ankit Kumara, Dinesh K.Pandya, SujeetChaudhary

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Volume 444, 15 December 2017, Pages 256-262;

Photo- and Cathodoluminescence of Eu3+ or Tb3+ Doped CaZrO3 Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Kazushige Ueda, Yuhei Shimizu, Hiroshi Takashima, Florian Massuyeau, Stéphane Jobic

Optical Materials, Vol. 73, November 2017, Pages 504-508

Interfacial Misfit Array Technique for GaSb Growth on GaAs
(001) Substrate by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
D. Benyahia, Ł. Kubiszyn, K. Michalczewski, A. Keblowski,

P. Martyniuk, J. Piotrowski, and A. Rogalski

Journal of Electronic Materials, 07 September 2017

Engineering of Magnetically Intercalated Silicene Compound: An Overlooked Polymorph of EuSi2
Andrey M. Tokmachev, Dmitry V. Averyanov, Igor A. Karateev, Oleg E. Parfenov, Oleg A. Kondratev, Alexander N. Taldenkov, Vyacheslav G. Storchak

Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 27, Issue 18, May 11, 2017 1606603;

Epitaxial stabilization of ordered Pd–Fe structures on perovskite substrates
Renee M. Harton, Vladimir A.Stoica, RoyClarke

Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Volume 429, 1 May 2017, Pages 29-33;

Tin Oxide Films Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Gazoni, Martinez

Thesis - 2017, University of Canterbury

The Interplay of Surface Adsorbates and Cationic Intermixing in the 2D Electron Gas Properties of LAO-STO Heterointerfaces
Akrobetu, Richard K

Thesis - 2017, Master of Sciences (Engineering), Case Western Reserve University, Materials Science and Engineering.

Structural Characterization Studies on Semiconducting ZnSnN2 Films using Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction
Senabulya, Nancy

Thesis - University of Michigan, 2017

Chapter Nine – Dynamic Atomic Layer Epitaxy of InN on/in GaN and Its Application for Fabricating Ordered Alloys in Whole III-N System
K. Kusakabe, A. Yoshikawa Semiconductors and Semimetals, III-Nitride Semiconductor Optoelectronics, Volume 96, 2017, Pages 305-340

Two Magnon Scattering and Anti-Damping Behavior in a Two-Dimensional Epitaxial TiN/Py(tPy)/b-Ta(tTa) System
Nilamani Behera, Ankit Kumar, Sujeet Chaudhary and Dinesh K. Pandya

RSC Adv., 2017, 7, 8106

A Prospective Submonolayer Template Structure for Integration of
Functional Oxides with Silicon
Dmitry V. Averyanov, Christina G. Karateeva, Igor A. Karateev, Andrey M. Tokmachev, Mikhail V. Kuzmin, Pekka Laukkanen , Alexander L. Vasiliev, Vyacheslav G. Storchak

Materials and Design 116 (2017) 616–621

In Situ Stress Observation in Oxide Films and How Tensile Stress Influences Oxygen Ion Conduction
Aline Fluri, Daniele Pergolesi, Vladimir Roddatis, Alexander Wokaun and Thomas Lippert

Nature Communications 10.1038/ncomms10692 (2016)

Topotactic Synthesis of the Overlooked Multilayer Silicene Intercalation Compound SrSi 2
Andrey Tokmachev, Dmitry Averyanov, Igor Karateev, Oleg Parfenov, Alexander L. Vasiliev, Sergey Yakunin and Vyacheslav Storchak

Nanoscale, 20 Jul 2016

Atomic-Scale Engineering of Abrupt Interface for Direct Spin Contact of Ferromagnetic Semiconductor with Silicon
Dmitry V. Averyanov, Christina G. Karateeva, Igor A. Karateev, Andrey M. Tokmachev, Alexander L. Vasiliev, Sergey I. Zolotarev, Igor A. Likhachev & Vyacheslav G. Storchak

Scientific Reports | 6:22841 | DOI: 10.1038/srep22841

Disentanglement of Growth Dynamic and Thermodynamic Effects in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 Heterostructures
Chencheng Xu, Christoph Bäumer, Ronja Anika Heinen, Susanne Hoffmann-Eifert, Felix Gunkel & Regina Dittmann

Nature, Scientific Reports 6, Article Number:22410 (2016)

Nanocrystalline Ferroelectric BiFeO3 Thin Films by Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition
Mariona Coll, Jaume Gazquez, Ignasi Fina, Zakariaya Khayat, Andy Quindeau, Marin Alexe, Maria Varela, Susan Trolier-McKinstry , Xavier Obradors, and Teresa Puig

Chem. Mater. To be published 20 Aug 2015

Review on RHEED – Reflective High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)- A Unique Tool For In-Situ Growth Monitoring
Oleg Maksimov, Material Research Institute, Pennsylvania State University

Vacuum Technology and Coating, August 2008

In Situ Composition Monitoring Using RHEED for SrTiO3 Thin Films Grown by Reactive Coevaporation
Luke S.-J Peng and Brian H. Moeckly

J.V.S.T. A 22, 2004, pp. 2437-2439

Smoothening of Cu Films Grown on Si(001)
R. A. Lukaszew, Y. Sheng, C. Uher, and R. Clarke

Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 76, no.6, 2000

RHEED Monitoring of Rotating Samples During Large-Area Homogeneous Deposition of Oxides
V. C. Matijasevic, Z. Lu, K. Von Dessonneck, C. Taylor, D. Barlett

MRS Fall Meeting, 1997

Growth and Magnetic Properties of Co x Ni 1-x Ultrathin Films on Cu(100)
F. O. Schumann, S. Z. Wu, G. J. Mankey, and R. F. Willis

Physical Review B, Vol. 56, no.5, 1997

Temperature-Dependent Strain Relaxation and Islanding of Ge/Si(111)
P. W. Deelman, L. J. Schowalter, and T. Thundat

Proc. Materials Research Society Vol. 399 (1996)

Resonant RHEED Study of Cu 3Au(111) Surface Order
S. W. Bonham and C. P. Flynn

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of InAs/AlGaAsSb Deep Quantum Wells on GaAs Substrates
N. Kuze, H. Goto, S. Miya, S. Muramatsu, M. Matsui, I. Shibasaki

Proc. Materials Reearch Society Vol. 3999 (1996)

Studies of Exchange Coupling in Fe(001) Whisker/Cr/Fe Structures Using BLS and RHEED Techniques
B. Heinrich, M. From, J. F. Cochran, L. X. Liao, Z. Celinski, C. M. Schneider and K. Myrtle

Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 313

The Use of RHEED Intensities for the Quantitative Characterization of Surfaces
Y. Ma, S. Lordi and J. A. Eades

Proc. Materials Research Society Vol. 399 (1996)

Morphology Transition and Layer-by-Layer Growth of Rh(111)
F. Tsui, J. Wellman, C. Uher, and Roy Clarke

Physical Review Letters, Vol. 76, no. 17, 1996

Review on RHEED – Introduction to RHEED
A.S. Arrot

Ultrathin Magnetic Structures I, Springer-Verlag, 1994, pp. 177-220

Structural transition in epitaxial Co-Cr superlattices
W. Vavra, D. Barlett, S. Elagoz, C. Uher, and R. Clarke

Physical Review B Vol. 47, no.9, 1993

CCD-Based RHEED Detection and Analysis System
D. Barlett, C.W. Snyder, B.G. Orr, and Roy Clarke

Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1991, pp. 1263-1269

The Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth of InGaAs on GaAs(100) Studied by In Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction
C. W. Snyder, D. Barlett, B. G. Orr, P. K. Bhattacharya and J. Singh

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9 (4), Jul/Aug 1991

Review on RHEED – A Review of the Geometrical Fundamentals of RHEED with Application to Silicon Surfaces
John E. Mahan, Kent M. Geib, G.Y. Robinson, and Robert G. Long

J.V.S.T. A 8, 1990, pp. 3692-3700

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