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References:

In Situ Stress Evolution During Growth of Transition Metal Nitride Films and Nanocomposites
G. Abadias, L.E. Koutsokeras, P.A. Patsalas, W. Leroy, D. Delpa, S.V. Zlotsi, V.V. Uglov

Nanomaterials: Applications and Properties (NAP-2011). Vol.1, PartII

» View All References

In Situ Measurement of CuPt Alloy Ordering Using Strain Anisotropy
Ryan M. France, William E. McMahon, Joongoo Kang, Myles A. Steiner, and John F. Geisz

Journal of Appl. Physics, 115, 053502, 2014

» View All References

In Situ Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Wafer Curvature Measurements During Formation of Thin Palladium Silicide Film on Si(001) and Si(111)
J. Fouet, M.I. Richard, C. Mocuta, C. Guichet, O. Thomas

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, B 284 (2012), pp 74-77

» View All References

In situ measurement of the internal stress evolution during sputter deposition of ZnO:Al
S. Michotte, J.Proost

Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 98 (2012) 253–259

» View All References

Periodic variation of stress in sputter deposited Si/WSi2 multilayers
Kimberly MacArthur, Bing Shi, Ray Conley and Albert T. Macrander

Applied Physics Letters 99, 081905 (2011)

» View All References

On the use of a multiple beam optical sensor for in situ curvature monitoring in liquids
Q. Van Overmeere, J.-F. Vanhumbeeck, and J. Proost

Review of Scientific Instruments 81, 045106, 2010

» View All References

The NSLS-II Multilayer Laue Lens Deposition System
Ray Conley, Nathalie Bouet, James Biancarosa, Qun Shen, Larry Boas, John Feraca, Leonard Rosenbaum

SPIE 2009

» View All References

Growth stresses and cracking in GaN films on (111) Si grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. II. Graded AlGaN buffer layers
Srinivasan Raghavan and Joan Redwing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University

Journal of Appl. Physics, 98, 023515, 2005

» View All References

Evolution of surface morphology and film stress during MOCVD growth of InN on sapphire substrates
Abhishek Jain, Srinivasan Raghavan, Joan M. Redwing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University

Journal of Crystal Growth 269 128-133, 2004

» View All References

In situ stress measurements during MOCVD growth of AlGaN on SiC
Jeremy D. Acord, Srinivasan Raghavan, David W. Snyder, Joan M. Redwing, Materials Research Institute and Applied Research Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University

Journal of Crystal Growth 272, 65-71, 2004

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Correlation of growth stress and structural evolution during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN on (111) Si
Srinivasan Raghavan, Xiaojun Weng, Elizabeth Dickey, and Joan M. Redwing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University

Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 88, 041904, 2006

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Effect of AlN interlayers on growth stress in GaN layers deposited on (111) Si
Srinivasan Raghavan, Xiaojun Weng, Elizabeth Dickey, and Joan M. Redwing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University

Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 87, 142101 2005

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Real-time strain evolution during growth of InxAl1-xAs/GaAs metamorphic buffer layers
C. Lynch, R. Beresford, and E. Chason, Brown University

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 22, 1539 2004

» View All References

Evolution of the growth stress, stiffness, and microstructure of alumina thin films during vapor deposition
Joris Proost and Frans Spaepen, Harvard University

Journal of Appl. Phys., Vol. 91, No. 1, 1 Jan. 2002

» View All References

Intrinsic stress development in Ti-C:H ceramic nanocomposite coatings
B. Shi and W. J. Meng – Louisiana State University
L. E. Rehn and P. M. Baldo – Argonne National Laboratory

Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 81, No.2, 8 July 2002

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Stress evolution during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN
S. Hearne, E. Chason, J. Han, J. A. Floro, J. Figiel, and J. Hunter, H. Amano, I. S. T. Tsong

Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol. 74, no. 3, 1999

» View All References

Real Time Measurement of Epilayer Strain Using a Simplified Water Curvature Technique
J. A. Floro, E. Chason, and S. R. Lee

Sandia National Laboratories

» View All References

Stress Evolution in Sputtered FCC Metal Multilayers
Vidya Ramaswamy, William D. Nix, and Bruce M. Clemens

Stanford University

» View All References

Stress Evolution During Growth of Sputtered Ni/Cu Multilayers
Vidya Ramaswamy, Bruce M. Clemens, and William D. Nix

Stanford University

» View All References

Stress and Defect Control in GaN Using Low Temperature Interlayers
Hiroshi Amano, Motoaki Iwaya, Takayuki Kashima, Maki Katsuragawa, Isamu Akasaki, Jung Han, Sean Hearne, Jerry A. Floro, Eric Chason and Jeffrey Figiel

Appl. Phys. Part.1, Vol. 37, no.12B, 1998

» View All References

Measuring Ge segregation by real-time stress monitoring during Si 1-xGe x molecular beam epitaxy
J. A. Floro and E. Chason

Appl. Phys. Lett 69, 1996 (p. 3830)

» View All References

Growth stresses and cracking in GaN films on (111) Si grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. I. AlN buffer layers
Srinivasan Raghavan and Joan Redwing Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University

Journal of Appl. Physics, 98, 023514, 2005

» View All References

kSA MOS

Control Your Stress! In-Situ 2D Curvature and Thin-Film Stress Monitoring


Understanding and controlling stress in thin-film and thermal annealing processes is critical for achieving the desired optical, electronic, and mechanical properties.  Many of today’s high performance devices rely on or must be designed with “built-in” stress within the individual layers for tailoring specific characteristics.  However, unwanted changes in stress can be introduced at any stage of the fabrication process and may lead to a reduction in device performance as well as delamination or cracking of deposited films.

Traditional ex-situ stress/strain methods such as XRD or surface profiling only measure the overall stress after the process is done, but completely miss the dynamic changes in stress occurring during the process.  Being able to measure the stress/strain in-situ, during the process gives important insight into mechanisms and methods for controlling and targeting the overall stress induced into the sample during every step.

kSA MOS Graphic

Capabilities

MOS on MBETo solve this in-situ stress monitoring need, kSA co-developed and patented a new, real-time stress/strain monitoring technique with Sandia National Laboratory over 15 years ago. The k-Space Multi-beam Optical Sensor (kSA MOS) uses an etalon, with highly reflective dielectric coatings on each side, that is placed at an angle to a single solid state laser beam. The incidence angle of the laser leads to multiple internal reflections within the etalon, which generates a linear array of parallel beams. These beams also pass through a second rotated etalon to produce a 2-dimensional array of beams for simultaneous 2D measurements in both x and y planes. The number and spacing of these beams can be controlled by the rotation angle of each etalon. The low power (Class 1) array of parallel beams is then reflected from the sample surface and directly imaged with a high resolution (CCD) camera. During thin-film or thermal stress, the sample being imaged with the kSA MOS laser array will undergo convex or concave changes in curvature which translate into the laser spots getting farther apart (convex) or closer (concave) relative to each other on the CCD. By using the known geometry and material properties of the substrate and film, real-time stress is determined directly via Stoney’s equation.

kSA MOS on Leybold Coater2 (cropped)The kSA MOS optics are mounted directly to the vacuum or process chamber viewport and contain laser-beam array optics and CCD detector optics with patented automatic steering mirror to ensure the laser array stays directly on the CCD center. Chamber integration can be with single port (normal incidence) or dual port (specular viewports) and provides several benefits for in-situ, thin-film curvature and thin-film stress measurement. The kSA MOS optics are simple and stationary, requiring only minimal alignment and calibration during initial setup. Simultaneous detection and spot spacing analysis of the array makes the measurement inherently less sensitive to sample vibration compared with scanning, single beam systems. Since all the kSA MOS laser spots move together at the same frequency, sample shift or tilt is not detected as a change of curvature. Through the use of simple image processing and rapid data analysis algorithms, kSA MOS technology can easily detect micron-size changes in spot position on the CCD.  This translates to radius of curvature resolution in the 20-50km range; powerful enough to detect the stress induced by a single monolayer of material deposited on the substrate surface. By monitoring the entire array of beams, two-dimensional, dynamic curvature and stress profiles can be obtained with enough speed necessary for real-time measurement and process control.

kSA MOS is currently being used for in-situ stress monitoring and control at leading R&D and full production facilities worldwide. Applications include metal film sputtering, high performance dielectric and filter coatings, glass panel processing, 300mm semiconductor IC processing, thin-film battery research, epitaxial layer growth during MBE and MOCVD, and thermal stress monitoring during annealing.

For more information see the Product Specification Sheet ▶

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kSA offers per-sample testing and analysis services using our most advanced optical metrology tools.
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